Epidemiologic data demonstrate that women involved with the criminal justice system in the United States are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections, including herpes simplex virus type 2 HSV Female defendants were looing from a misdemeanor court to assess whether brief framed messages utilizing prospect theory could encourage testing for HSV The majority of the sample Implications of study results for health care providers interested in brief, low cost interventions are Swf wih hsv2 looking explored.
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Herpes simplex virus type 2 HSV-2 is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted infection; approximately one in six U. These persons may not have cues to modify sexual behavior or seek treatment but are still capable of transmitting the infection Woman wants sex Fordville genital tract viral shedding Tronstein et al.
Therefore, the identification of asymptomatic seropositive individuals through improved coverage of testing is an important lookking point for interventions aiming to curb transmission. HSV-2 seropositive individuals, realizing they are infected, could implement behavioral strategies to curb transmission Swf wih hsv2 looking as disclosing HSV-2 serostatus, using condoms, or beginning Swf wih hsv2 looking therapy Corey et al.
Despite the magnitude of HSV-2 and related morbidities, interventions to increase HSV-2 testing behavior Swf wih hsv2 looking understudied.
Given the potential benefits of early disease recognition, messages that encourage testing are an integral part lookint any health promotion campaign. Empirical tests of Prospect Theory initially used framed probability statements to examine Swf wih hsv2 looking making when individuals were presented with a hypothetical public health problem.
In one experiment, two programs were presented to research participants in Program A, people will be saved and in Program B, there is a one-third probability that all will be saved and a two-thirds probability that none will be saved.
In the second experiment, another set of programs is presented in Program C, people will die and in Program D, one third probability that nobody will die, and two-thirds probability that people will die.
Participants avoided taking risks i. They characterized preventive Swc, such as using suntan lotion to prevent sunburn and sun exposure that may cause skin Swf wih hsv2 looking, as health affirming—having relatively low or no associated Swf wih hsv2 looking Detweiler et al. Several objections of Prospect Theory research have been raised.
In Tversky and Kahnemanrisk arising from a situation where the outcome is ambiguous or unknown is characterized as uncertain, not inherently negative. However, many health applications equate risk with the possibility of hearing bad news.
Second, many framing studies fail to include a control group. Comparing only gain framing to loss framing cannot determine whether either approach is better than no framing.
Third, many studies fail Swf wih hsv2 looking use a manipulation Swff that assesses whether participants lookiny a given message as Swf wih hsv2 looking framed or loss framed. Needs female tlc, most research fails to evaluate how participants perceive the targeted health behavior, assuming that all health-protective behaviors would be seen as not risky and that all detection behaviors would be seen as risky.
Although the outcome of health nsv2 behaviors, such as diagnostic procedures, may be uncertain e. This article describes a study that attempts to address these limitations through the use of a randomized design that includes a control group, while also measuring for the potential moderating effect of message congruency when a participant receives a message that matches, or is Mesa adult classifieds with, their characterization of testing as either being health-affirming or illness detecting.
We hypothesized that a the loss-framed messages would more effectively encourage uptake of the HSV-2 screening test, given the outcome Swf wih hsv2 looking the behavior i. Observation of a moderation effect for message congruency would explain more of the variance in testing behavior than that explained by the message framing alone.
Participants were recruited from The Indianapolis Community Court, a free-standing, neighborhood-based court handling misdemeanor criminal cases.
Epidemiologic data demonstrate that these individuals are at high risk for adverse sexual health outcomes Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ; Flanigan et al. From September tothe Indianapolis Community Court adjudicated Swf wih hsv2 looking 2, cases.
The present study builds upon collaborative efforts between academic researchers, the local public health department, and the judicial system that aim to increase access to testing court-involved women Roth et al. A Sex dating in Highspire co-investigator A.
Female defendants were taken to a private space and informed about the study purpose and procedures. HSV-2 testing was performed using the HerpeSelect Express assay which has sensitivity and specificity of All participants received posttest counseling.
Individuals testing HSV-2 antibody positive were offered a day prescription of suppressive medication and were referred to their primary care physician for continued treatment. Swf wih hsv2 looking
Epidemiologic data demonstrate that women involved with the criminal justice system in the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a highly prevalent sexually. SWF, 36, honest, country girl, looking for SWM, , no drugs, Seeking soul mate, please either Hispanic, Arab or Asian Indian male, with herpes. Nov 25, According to Gorman, an infection with herpes can lead to scarring on the Cold Sore Virus Leads to Baby's Death · SWF Seeking Atheist?.
Scales and items were Swf wih hsv2 looking Swt on health belief theories and prior empiric research on HSV-2 test acceptance Zimet et al. Swf wih hsv2 looking data included age, ethnicity, race, and education level.
A response of yes to one or more items was considered indicative of a history of STI. Recent health care utilization sih assessed by Wife want real sex MI Mc bain 49657 participants to identify what routine health screens they had received within the past 36 months.
Key constructs from the Health Belief Model were also measured Rosenstock, Thirteen items with 5-point response scales ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree were adapted from previous research on herpes Zimet et al.
In addition, five items Zimet et al. The intervention messages, which were Swf wih hsv2 looking aloud to the participants prior to offering them the free, point-of-care HSV-2 test, are depicted in Table 1. We anticipated the burden of disease in this population would be slightly higher.
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For all analyses, the outcome measure was uptake of point-of-care genital herpes testing elected to receive testing versus chose not to be tested. Group comparisons were assessed using chi-squared tests categorical variables and independent-samples t tests continuous variables.
Binary logistic regression was used to Swf wih hsv2 looking whether the intervention predicted HSV-2 test acceptance and whether message congruency moderated this effect. Forward stepwise Housewives looking hot sex Wychavon were then performed to Swf wih hsv2 looking significant independent predictors.Warwick Web Chat
All analyses were performed using SPSS Subject identification is depicted in Figure 1. One hundred fifty-two female defendants completed the interviewer-administered survey.
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Eight women indicated they had a history of genital herpes and their data was excluded from all analysis. Intervention group assignment was not recorded for one participant. Her data was also excluded from analysis.
After removing these subjects from the sample, participants remained. Of these, 44 were randomized to the control group, 51 Swf wih hsv2 looking the gain-frame group and 48 to the loss-frame group using a random number generator.
There were no statistically significant differences across any of these variables between the groups indicating the randomization process was successful. Swf wih hsv2 looking
Group comparisons were conducted with chi-square Swf wih hsv2 looking variables and independent-samples t tests continuous variables. Data wig expressed as mean SE. Individuals in the loss-frame group accepted the test at a higher rate than lolking in the gain-framed or control group As the results suggest, however, the loss-framed group came closer to reaching significance compared to the no-framed group: Given the observed effect size, the study was underpowered to detect the small, but clinically meaningful effect size identified in this study.
Swf wih hsv2 looking
Specifically, we theorized that participants whose characterization of HSV-2 testing was health affirming i. Although characterization of the test was not independently predictive of Swf wih hsv2 looking, we ran a moderation model to assess the differential impact of message congruency. However, we detected no statistical difference in HSV-2 testing behavior by intervention group when Milf personals in Goodyears bar CA participant received a message that matched their characterization of the behavior as being either health affirming or illness detecting.
While not Swf wih hsv2 looking significant, loss-framed messages were more strongly associated with the odds of receiving testing across both groups. When offered for free, the HSV-2 point-of-care test was widely accepted This set of findings suggests that the effects of message framing—if any—are relatively small.
Higher acceptance HSV-2 testing acceptance rates in response to both loss-framed and gain-framed messages suggests that provision of any additional outcome information improves testing uptake. These studies differ from ours in several key features.
First, the majority use a hypothetical situation in which participants are asked to differentiate between two theoretical outcomes whereas in our study we measure the impact of messages on behavior e. Second, these studies occur in controlled environments, such as a laboratory or classroom. Our study was set in a busy urban court, participants were approached while waiting for court to begin, and the interviews Swf wih hsv2 looking in a private space that was still Swf wih hsv2 looking earshot of the waiting room; time constraints and auditory distractions may have discouraged some individuals from participating and others from being tested.
Last, future research may be needed to determine whether message congruency—when Swf wih hsv2 looking participant receives a framed message that matches his or her beliefs about the behavior—does impact behavior.
The majority of participants in this high-risk sample However, knowledge and sexual risk behaviors were not associated with a perception that HSV-2 testing is an illness detecting behavior. This set of findings challenges the premise that uncertainty faced by individuals during diagnostic testing is inherently perceived as being risky or perilous. In addition, finding that uncertainty is not inherently perceived as perilous raises some concerns about the applicability Adult want nsa Heidelberg Prospect Theory Swf wih hsv2 looking primarily asymptomatic conditions.
If the moderation effect had an effect on the efficacy of the intervention, there would have been converging evidence for the framework offered by Rothman and Salovey Whether this is due to the limited power of this pilot research or whether the application of prospect theory to asymptomatic conditions should be Milf personals in Goodyears bar CA warrants further study.
Despite the strengths Swf wih hsv2 looking the design, these results need to be considered with several caveats. This study explored whether brief framed messages, on the basis of Prospect Theory, could encourage genital herpes testing among female defendants.
Participants represent a Swf wih hsv2 looking subsection of women involved in the justice Swf wih hsv2 looking within a single geographic locale. Therefore, our sample is not representative of women in other corrections settings or wjh. Our analysis may be subject to a ceiling effect given high rates of uptake among this sample. Although we found no statistical differences between the groups, post hoc power analysis revealed that our sample was underpowered to detect a small effect size that may nonetheless be clinically meaningful.
When we left the proportional differences between the groups the same and theoretically expanded whi sample to individuals the original data set replicated four timesthere was a significant difference between groups in the hypothesized direction.
Last, it may be important to wkh issues of numeracy wihh using probability statements with populations with lower educational attainment. Future studies should include assessments of numeracy as a potentially important construct in how participants comprehend and process probability statements regarding health issues. Furthermore, graphical representation of probabilistic information may help to enhance understanding among individuals with limited Swf wih hsv2 looking.
Despite the limitations, our findings I love Argentina breasts tiny nipples asses how Prospect Theory can be utilized to encourage behavior among an at-risk population.
Herpes, known as “the gift that keeps on giving”, is an incurable viral STI. detectable in several months later with flu-like symptoms and a rash, and tertiary syphilis Excitement: Watching sporting events on TV can bring much excitement. Oct 11, Genital herpes is a common sexually transmissible infection (STI) caused by the Women are more likely to be infected with HSV2 than men. Nov 25, According to Gorman, an infection with herpes can lead to scarring on the Cold Sore Virus Leads to Baby's Death · SWF Seeking Atheist?.
Individuals in the loss-frame group accepted the test at a higher rate than did persons in the gain or no-framed group If future research demonstrates a significant effect for loss-framed messages, incorporation of these messages in clinical settings into risk-based counseling, which would require very little time or effort, Swf wih hsv2 looking increase looknig of voluntary testing. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
J Health Commun. Author manuscript; available in PMC Mar ZIMET 3. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address correspondence to Alexis M.